Insights into gastrointestinal virome: etiology and public exposure

Islam Nour, Atif Hanif, Martin Denis Ryan, Saleh Eifan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Recycled wastewater is widely used owing to the potential shortage of water resources for drinking purposes, recreational activities, and irrigation. However, gut microbiomes of both human beings and animals negatively affect this water quality. Wastewater contamination is continuously monitored, using fecal contamination indicators or microbial source tracking approaches, to oppose arising enteric infections. Viral gastroenteritis is considered a principal manifestation of waterborne pathogenic virome-mediated infections, which are mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Furthermore, acquired enteric viromes are the common cause of infantile acute diarrhea. Moreover, public exposure to wastewater via wastewater discharge or treated wastewater reuse has led to a significant surge of public health concerns. In this review, we discussed the etiology of waterborne enteric viromes, notably gastrointestinal virus infections, and public exposure to municipal wastewater. Conclusively, the early human virome is affected mainly by birth mode, dietary behavior, and maternal health, and could provide a signature of disease incidence, however, more virome diversification is acquired in adulthood. A multi-phase treatment approach offered an effective means for the elimination of wastewater reuse mediated public risks. The insights highlighted in this paper offer essential information for defining probable etiologies and assessing risks related to exposure to discharged or reused wastewater.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2794
Number of pages34
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2021


  • Virome
  • Wastewater
  • Etiology
  • Viral gastroenteritis
  • Exposure


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