Human resource management (HRM) plays an important role in providing better management for nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Yet little is known about what influences their human resource practices. After discussing how the strategic and human-resource-based theoretical approaches are appropriate for analyzing HRM in NPOs, the authors explore the current nonprofit literature to identify the specific characteristics of strategic orientations and human resources in NPOs. As a result, the authors propose an analytical framework that is differentiated into four HRM types. This framework enables a better understanding of the relationship between the specific characteristics of NPOs and the architecture of HRM.