Recently, dynamic social network research has attracted a great amount of attention, especially in the area of anomaly analysis that analyzes the anomalous change in the evolution of dynamic social networks. However, most of the current research focused on anomaly analysis of the macro representation of dynamic social networks and failed to analyze the nodes that have anomalous structural changes at a micro level. To identify and evaluate anomalous structural change-based nodes in generalized dynamic social networks that only have limited structural information, this research considers undirected and unweighted graphs and develops a multiple-neighbor superposition similarity method (MNSSM), which mainly consists of a multiple-neighbor range algorithm (MNRA) and a superposition similarity fluctuation algorithm (SSFA). MNRA introduces observation nodes, characterizes the structural similarities of nodes within multiple-neighbor ranges, and proposes a new multiple-neighbor similarity index on the basis of extensional similarity indices. Subsequently, SSFA maximally reflects the structural change of each node, using a new superposition similarity fluctuation index from the perspective of diverse multiple-neighbor similarities. As a result, based on MNRA and SSFA, MNSSM not only identifies anomalous structural change-based nodes by detecting the anomalous structural changes of nodes but also evaluates their anomalous degrees by quantifying these changes. Results obtained by comparing with state-of-the-art methods via extensive experiments show that MNSSM can accurately identify anomalous structural change-based nodes and evaluate their anomalous degrees well.