How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube task

Nicholas J. Mulcahy*, Josep Call

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)


To date, neither primates nor birds have shown clear evidence of causal knowledge when attempting to solve the trap tube task. One factor that may have contributed to mask the knowledge that subjects may have about the task is that subjects were only allowed to push the reward away from them, which is a particularly difficult action for primates in certain problem solving situations. We presented five orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two bonobos (Pan paniscus), and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) with a modified trap tube that allowed subjects to push or rake the reward with the tool. In two additional follow-up tests, we inverted the tube 180 degrees rendering the trap nonfunctional and also presented subjects with the original task in which they were required to push the reward out of the tube. Results showed that all but one of the subjects preferred to rake the reward. Two orangutans and one chimpanzee (all of whom preferred to rake the reward), consistently avoided the trap only when it was functional but failed the original task. These findings suggest that some great apes may have some causal knowledge about the trap-tube task. Their success, however, depended on whether they were allowed to choose certain tool-using actions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-199
Number of pages7
JournalAnimal Cognition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006


  • causal knowledge
  • tool use
  • problem solving
  • anticipation


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