Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity: A contributing factor to hyperpigmentation in Nephrops norvegicus

Christopher J. Coates*, Jacqueline Nairn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The phenomenon of hyperpigmentation (melanosis) in shellfish has long been attributed to phenoloxidase enzymes. Over the last number of years, the oxygen carrier hemocyanin, has demonstrated several immune- and physiological functionalities, most notably, inducible phenoloxidase activity. In this study, hemocyanin purified from the hemolymph of Nephrops norvegicus displays diphenoloxidase activity in the presence of a number of elicitors and retains structural and functional integrity throughout the process of freeze-thawing (at -25 degrees C). Conversely, cellular phenoloxidase activity (present in cell-lysates), demonstrates >98% reduction in activity after freeze-thawing. We present evidence that hemocyanin may act as a causative agent of hyperpigmentation in N. norvegicus. The inhibition of hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is discussed, and for the first time, the biophysical interactions of shellfish hemocyanin with known phenoloxidase inhibitors are presented. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-369
Number of pages9
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume140
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2013

Keywords

  • Hemocyanin
  • Phenoloxidase
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Innate immunity
  • Enzyme inhibition
  • Invertebrates
  • PRAWN PENAEUS-JAPONICUS
  • TYROSINASE INHIBITORS
  • MUSHROOM TYROSINASE
  • LIMULUS-POLYPHEMUS
  • OXIDASE ACTIVATION
  • PROPHENOLOXIDASE
  • CONVERSION
  • POLYPHENOLOXIDASE
  • CATECHOLOXIDASE
  • PURIFICATION

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