(+)-Hemipalmitoylcarnitinium Strongly Inhibits Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-I in Intact Mitochondria

Richard D. Gandour, On tai Leung*, Anthony T. Greway, Rona R. Ramsay, Nóirín Nic a' Bháird, Frank R. Fronczek, Bret M. Bellard, G. Kumaravel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The reaction of the methyl ester of (R)-norcarnitine with 1-bromo-2-heptadecanone produces (+)-6-[(methoxycarbonyl)methyl]-2-pentadecyl-4,4-dimethylmorpholinium bromide, 3, which hydrolyzes to (+)-6-(carboxylatomethyl)-2-pentadecyl-4,4-dimethylmorpholinium (hemipalmitoylcarnitinium, HPC) upon treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Single-crystal X-ray analyses have confirmed the structures of (+)-HPC and 3. (+)-HPC inhibits carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-I) activity for the forward reaction (palmitoyl-CoA + carnitine →) in intact mitochondria from rat heart and rat liver. (+)-HPC competitively (versus carnitine) inhibits CPT-I activity in both rat heart and liver mitochondria with Ki = 2.8 ± 0.5 and 4.2 ± 0.7 µM, respectively. As one of the strongest specific inhibitors of CPT-I, HPC is a potential therapeutic agent in myocardial ischemia and Type II diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-242
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1993


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