Geography and ecology shape the phylogenetic composition of Amazonian tree communities

Bruno Garcia Luize*, David Bauman, Hans ter Steege, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Iêda Leão do Amaral, Luiz de Souza Coelho, Francisca Dionízia de Almeida Matos, Diógenes de Andrade Lima Filho, Rafael P. Salomão, Florian Wittmann, Carolina V. Castilho, Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim, Juan Ernesto Guevara, Oliver L. Phillips, William E. Magnusson, Daniel Sabatier, Juan David Cardenas Revilla, Jean-François Molino, Mariana Victória Irume, Maria Pires MartinsJosé Renan da Silva Guimarães, José Ferreira Ramos, Olaf S. Bánki, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Dairon Cárdenas López, Nigel C. A. Pitman, Layon O. Demarchi, Jochen Schöngart, Evlyn Márcia Moraes de Leão Novo, Percy Núñez Vargas, Thiago Sanna Freire Silva, Eduardo Martins Venticinque, Angelo Gilberto Manzatto, Neidiane Farias Costa Reis, John Terborgh, Katia Regina Casula, Euridice N. Honorio Coronado, Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, Juan Carlos Montero, Flávia R. C. Costa, Ted R. Feldpausch, Adriano Costa Quaresma, Nicolás Castaño Arboleda, Charles Eugene Zartman, Timothy J. Killeen, Beatriz S. Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon-Junior, Rodolfo Vasquez, Bonifacio Mostacedo, Rafael L. Assis, Chris Baraloto, Dário Dantas do Amaral, Julien Engel, Pascal Petronelli, Hernán Castellanos, Marcelo Brilhante de Medeiros, Marcelo Fragomeni Simon, Ana Andrade, José Luís Camargo, William F. Laurance, Susan G. W. Laurance, Lorena Maniguaje Rincón, Juliana Schietti, Thaiane R. Sousa, Emanuelle de Sousa Farias, Maria Aparecida Lopes, José Leonardo Lima Magalhães, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça Nascimento, Helder Lima de Queiroz, Gerardo A. Aymard C, Roel Brienen, Pablo R. Stevenson, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat Cintra, Tim R. Baker, Yuri Oliveira Feitosa, Hugo F. Mogollón, Joost F. Duivenvoorden, Carlos A. Peres, Miles R. Silman, Leandro Valle Ferreira, José Rafael Lozada, James A. Comiskey, José Julio de Toledo, Gabriel Damasco, Nállarett Dávila, Freddie C. Draper, Roosevelt García-Villacorta, Aline Lopes, Alberto Vicentini, Fernando Cornejo Valverd, Alfonso Alonso, Luzmila Arroyo, Francisco Dallmeier, Vitor H. F. Gomes, Eliana M. Jimenez, David Neill, Maria Cristina Peñuela Mora, Janaína Costa Noronha, Daniel P. P. de Aguiar, Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa, Yennie K. Bredin, Rainiellen de Sá Carpanedo, Fernanda Antunes Carvalho, Fernanda Coelho de Souza, Kenneth J. Feeley, Rogerio Gribel, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Joseph E. Hawes, Marcelo Petratti Pansonato, Marcos Ríos Paredes, Domingos de Jesus Rodrigues, Jos Barlow, Erika Berenguer, Izaias Brasil da Silva, Maria Julia Ferreira, Joice Ferreira, Paul V. A. Fine, Marcelino Carneiro Guedes, Carolina Levis, Juan Carlos Licona, Boris Eduardo Villa Zegarra, Vincent Antoine Vos, Carlos Cerón, Flávia Machado Durgante, Émile Fonty, Terry W. Henkel, John Ethan Householder, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Marcos Silveira, Juliana Stropp, Raquel Thomas, Doug Daly, William Millike, Guido Pardo Molina, Toby Pennington, Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira, Bianca Weiss Albuquerque, Wegliane Campelo, Alfredo Fuentes, Bente Klitgaard, José Luis Marcelo Pena, J. Sebastián Tello, Corine Vriesendorp, Jerome Chave, Anthony Di Fiore, Renato Richard Hilário, Luciana de Oliveira Pereira, Juan Fernando Phillips, Gonzalo Rivas-Torres, Tinde R. van Andel, Patricio von Hildebrand, William Balee, Edelcilio Marques Barbosa, Luiz Carlos de Matos Bonates, Hilda Paulette Dávila Doza, Ricardo Zárate Gómez, Therany Gonzales, George Pepe Gallardo Gonzales, Bruce Hoffman, André Braga Junqueira, Yadvinder Malhi, Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda, Linder Felipe Mozombite Pinto, Adriana Prieto, Agustín Rudas, Ademir R. Ruschel, Natalino Silva, César I. A. Vela, Stanford Zent, Egleé L. Zent, Angela Cano, Yrma Andreina Carrero Márquez, Diego F. Correa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa Costa, Bernardo Monteiro Flores, David Galbraith, Milena Holmgren, Michelle Kalamandeen, Guilherme Lobo, Luis Torres Montenegro, Marcelo Trindade Nascimento, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Maihyra Marina Pombo, Hirma Ramirez-Angulo, Maira Rocha, Veridiana Vizoni Scudeller, Maria Natalia Umaña, Geertje van der Heijden, Emilio Vilanova Torre, Manuel Augusto Ahuite Reategui, Cláudia Baider, Henrik Balslev, Sasha Cárdenas, Luisa Fernanda Casas, William Farfan-Rios, Cid Ferreira, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Casimiro Mendoza, Italo Mesones, Germaine Alexander Parada, Armando Torres-Lezama, Ligia Estela Urrego Giraldo, Daniel Villarroel, Roderick Zagt, Miguel N. Alexiades, Edmar Almeida de Oliveira, Karina Garcia-Cabrera, Lionel Hernandez, Walter Palacios Cuenca, Susamar Pansini, Daniela Pauletto, Freddy Ramirez Arevalo, Adeilza Felipe Sampaio, Elvis H. Valderrama Sandoval, Luis Valenzuela Gamarra, Kyle G. Dexter

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Aim
Amazonia hosts more tree species from numerous evolutionary lineages, both young and ancient, than any other biogeographic region. Previous studies have shown that tree lineages colonized multiple edaphic environments and dispersed widely across Amazonia, leading to a hypothesis, which we test, that lineages should not be strongly associated with either geographic regions or edaphic forest types.

Location
Amazonia.

Taxon
Angiosperms (Magnoliids; Monocots; Eudicots).

Methods
Data for the abundance of 5082 tree species in 1989 plots were combined with a mega-phylogeny. We applied evolutionary ordination to assess how phylogenetic composition varies across Amazonia. We used variation partitioning and Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM) to test and quantify the separate and joint contributions of spatial and environmental variables to explain the phylogenetic composition of plots. We tested the indicator value of lineages for geographic regions and edaphic forest types and mapped associations onto the phylogeny.

Results
In the terra firme and várzea forest types, the phylogenetic composition varies by geographic region, but the igapó and white-sand forest types retain a unique evolutionary signature regardless of region. Overall, we find that soil chemistry, climate and topography explain 24% of the variation in phylogenetic composition, with 79% of that variation being spatially structured (R2 = 19% overall for combined spatial/environmental effects). The phylogenetic composition also shows substantial spatial patterns not related to the environmental variables we quantified (R2 = 28%). A greater number of lineages were significant indicators of geographic regions than forest types.

Main Conclusion
Numerous tree lineages, including some ancient ones (>66 Ma), show strong associations with geographic regions and edaphic forest types of Amazonia. This shows that specialization in specific edaphic environments has played a long-standing role in the evolutionary assembly of Amazonian forests. Furthermore, many lineages, even those that have dispersed across Amazonia, dominate within a specific region, likely because of phylogenetically conserved niches for environmental conditions that are prevalent within regions.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Biogeography
VolumeEarly View
Early online date17 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Community assembly
  • Dispersal limitation
  • Environmental selection
  • Evolutionary principal component analysis
  • Indicator lineage analysis
  • Moran's eigenvector maps
  • Neotropics
  • Niche conservatism
  • Tropical rain forests

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