Fluctuating maximal God

Anne Jeffrey, Asha Lancaster-Thomas, Matyáš Moravec*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper explores a variety of perfect being theism that combines Yujin Nagasawa’s maximal God thesis with the view that God is not atemporal. We argue that the original maximal God thesis still implicitly relies on a “static” view of divine perfections. Instead, following the recent re-evaluation of divine immutability by analytic philosophers, we propose that thinking of divine great-making properties (omnipotence, omniscience etc.) as fluctuating but nevertheless remaining maximal either for every time t or across all times strengthens the original maximal God thesis. Furthermore, we show that “temporalising” Nagasawa’s maximal God and adopting what we call the fluctuating maximal God thesis provides more effective ways of responding to objections to perfect being theism, in particular, the argument from evil and some conceptual problems pertaining to the Incarnation. Finally, we demonstrate that our proposal is compatible with Christian Scriptures and coheres with numerous biblical passages better than Nagasawa’s original proposal does.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-247
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal for Philosophy of Religion
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • God and time
  • Immutability
  • Maximal God
  • Perfect being theism
  • Problem of evil


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