Exposure to high solar radiation reduces self-regulated exercise intensity in the heat outdoors

Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Ronald J. Maughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


High radiant heat load reduces endurance exercise performance in the heat indoors, but this remains unconfirmed in outdoor exercise. The current study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on self-regulated exercise intensity and thermoregulatory responses in the heat outdoors at a fixed rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten male participants completed 45-min cycling exercise in hot outdoor environments (about 31 °C) at a freely chosen resistance and cadence at an RPE of 13 (somewhat hard). Participants were blinded to resistance, pedal cadence, distance and elapsed time and exercised at three sunlight exposure conditions: clear sky (mean ± SD: 1072 ± 91 W·m−2; HIGH); thin cloud (592 ± 32 W·m−2; MID); and thick cloud (306 ± 52 W·m−2; LOW). Power output (HIGH 96 ± 22 W; MID 103 ± 20 W; LOW 108 ± 20 W) and resistance were lower in HIGH than MID and LOW (P < .001). Pedal cadence was lower, the core-to-skin temperature gradient was narrower, body heat gain from the sun (SHG) was greater and thermal sensation was higher with increasing solar radiation and all variables were different between trials (P < .01). Mean skin temperature was higher in HIGH than MID and LOW (P < .01), but core temperature was similar between trials (P = .485). We conclude that self-regulated exercise intensity in the heat outdoors at a fixed RPE of somewhat hard is reduced with increasing solar radiation because of greater thermoregulatory strain, perceived thermal stress and SHG. This suggests that reduced self-selected exercise intensity during high solar radiation exposure in the heat may prevent excessive core temperature rise.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysiology & Behavior
VolumeIn press
Early online date22 Nov 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Nov 2018


  • Body temperature
  • Exercise performance
  • Heat stress
  • Thermal sensation
  • Sunlight


Dive into the research topics of 'Exposure to high solar radiation reduces self-regulated exercise intensity in the heat outdoors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this