Enhanced oxygen redox reversibility and capacity retention of titanium-substituted Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2 in sodium-ion batteries

Stephanie Linnell, Eun Jeong Kim, Yong-Seok Choi, Moritz Hirsbrunner, Saki Imada, Atin Pramanik, Aida Fuente Cuesta, David Miller, Edoardo Fusco, Bela E Bode, John Irvine, Laurent Duda, David O. Scanlon, Anthony Robert Armstrong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Anion redox reactions offer a means of enhancing the capacity of layered sodium transition metal oxide positive electrode materials. However, oxygen redox reactions typically show limited reversibility and irreversible structural changes upon cycling, resulting in rapid capacity loss. Here, the Ti substituted Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2 (where □ represents a transition metal vacancy) is presented as a positive electrode material for sodium ion batteries. Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2 delivers a reversible capacity of 167 mAh g -1 after 25 cycles at 10 mA g -1 within the voltage range of 1.6 – 4.4 V and presents enhanced stability compared with Na4/7[□1/7Mn6/7]O2 over the voltage range 3.0 – 4.4 V. The structural and electronic structural changes of this Ti4+ substituted phase are investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, X ray absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy, supported by density functional theory calculations. These results show that the Na4/7[□1/7Mn6/7]O2 structure is maintained between 3.0 – 4.4 V, and the presence of TiO6 octahedra in Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2 relieves structural distortions from Jahn Teller distorted Mn3+O6 between 1.6 – 4.4 V. Furthermore, Ti4+ substitution stabilises the adjacent O 2p orbitals and raises the ionicity of the Mn O bonds, increasing the operating potential of Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2. Thereby providing evidence that the improved electrochemical performance of Na4/7[□1/7Ti1/7Mn5/7]O2 can be attributed to Ti4+ substitution. This work provides insight and strategies for improving the structural stability and electrochemical performance of sodium layered oxides.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9941-9953
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume10
Issue number18
Early online date30 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2022

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