## Abstract

We survey the use of spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) to probe the electronic structure of underdoped cuprates. Two distinct classes of electronic states are observed in both the d-wave superconducting (dSC) and the pseudogap (PG) phases. The first class consists of the dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations of a homogeneous d-wave superconductor, existing below a lower energy scale E = Delta(0). We find that the Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) signatures of delocalized Cooper pairing are restricted to a k-space arc, which terminates near the lines connecting k = +/-(pi/a(0), 0) to k = +/-(0, pi/a(0)). This arc shrinks continuously with decreasing hole density such that Luttinger's theorem could be satisfied if it represents the front side of a hole-pocket that is bounded behind by the lines between k = +/-(pi/a(0), 0) and k = +/-(0, pi/a(0)). In both phases, the only broken symmetries detected for the vertical bar E vertical bar < Delta(0) states are those of a d-wave superconductor. The second class of states occurs proximate to the PG energy scale E = Delta(1). Here the non-dispersive electronic structure breaks the expected 90 degrees-rotational symmetry of electronic structure within each unit cell, at least down to 180 degrees-rotational symmetry. This electronic symmetry breaking was first detected as an electronic inequivalence at the two oxygen sites within each unit cell by using a measure of nematic (C-2) symmetry. Incommensurate non-dispersive conductance modulations, locally breaking both rotational and translational symmetries, coexist with this intra-unit-cell electronic symmetry breaking at E = Delta(1). Their characteristic wavevector Q is determined by the k-space points where Bogoliubov QPI terminates and therefore changes continuously with doping. The distinct broken electronic symmetry states (intra-unit-cell and finite Q) coexisting at E similar to Delta(1) are found to be indistinguishable in the dSC and PG phases. The next challenge for SI-STM studies is to determine the relationship of the E similar to Delta(1) broken symmetry electronic states with the PG phase, and with the E < Delta(0) states associated with Cooper pairing.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 065014 |

Number of pages | 32 |

Journal | New Journal of Physics |

Volume | 13 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 21 Jun 2011 |

## Keywords

- Spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM)
- Underdoped cuprates
- D-wave superconducting (dSC)
- Pseudogap (PG) phases