Developing a model of perceptions of security and insecurity in the context of crime

Iain Douglas Reid*, Sandra Appleby-Arnold, Noellie Brockdorff, Ivana Jakovljev, Sunčica Zdravković

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The current study was carried out as part of the CITYCOP project exploring fear of crime, risk perception and feelings of security and insecurity. Participants (n = 272) from 11 European countries answered a questionnaire exploring measures of risk perception, fear of crime, anxiety, trust in police and related behaviours. A seven-factor structure is proposed incorporating ‘Signs of Social and Physical Disorder’, ‘Trust in Police’, ‘Trait Anxiety’, ‘Collective Efficacy’, ‘Perceived Risk of Victimisation’, ‘Fear of Personal Harm’ and ‘Fear of Property Theft’. Overall findings suggest that the measures associated with feelings of insecurity are negatively related to the measures associated with feelings of security. Efforts should be made to reduce feelings of insecurity through encouraging trust in law enforcement and community interaction and reducing signs of social and physical disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-636
Number of pages17
JournalPsychiatry, Psychology and Law
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Community policing
  • fear of crime
  • insecurity
  • risk perception
  • security


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