Current challenges and future prospects of osseointegration limb reconstruction for amputees

Muhammad Adeel Akhtar, Caroline Low*, Christopher Tiemessen, Jason Shih Hoellwarth, Munjed Al Muderis, Kevin Tetsworth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Although osseointegration has proven successful at improving the physical deficits that traditional prostheses leave unfulfilled, future innovation should be systematically guided rather than randomly explored. Therefore, this article attempts to summarise, in a systematic manner, the challenges and prospects of osseointegration limb reconstruction for amputees from an implant design and manufacturing point of view, to provide a template for the development of the next generation of osseointegration implants. A scoping literature review was conducted, and key papers were identified and summarised. To combat osseointegration-related infection, advances such as smart implant coatings, mechanical inactivation of bacteria, biofilm eradication, implant monitoring technologies and nanotechnology were evaluated. Regarding production and biomaterials, the potential of 3D printing to balance supply and demand to achieve cost-effectiveness and sustainability were investigated. Considering the evolution of designs and the goal to provide a sensate limb, the prospects of smart implants, biofeedback and myoelectric pattern recognition were also explored. Osseointegration appears to follow a trajectory like that of total joint arthroplasty, which gained widespread clinical acceptance and adoption over the last 50 years. In our opinion, the future of amputee rehabilitation is bright, and we are optimistic osseointegration will continue to progress and advance as new technologies emerge.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
Number of pages8
JournalSN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine
Early online date29 Dec 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Dec 2023


  • Osseointegration
  • Amputee
  • Infection
  • Sustainability
  • Design
  • Advances


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