Coinfection is the process by which a host that is infected with a pathogen becomes infected by a second pathogen at a later point in time. An immunosuppressant host response to a primary disease can facilitate spreading of a subsequent emergent pathogen among the population. Social contact patterns within the substrate populace can be modeled using complex networks and it has been shown that contact patterns vastly influence the emergent disease dynamics. In this paper, we consider the effect of contact clustering on the coinfection dynamics of two pathogens spreading over a network. We use the generating function formulation to describe the expected outbreak sizes of each pathogen and numerically study the threshold criteria that permit the coexistence of each strain among the network. We find that the effects of clustering on the levels of coinfection are governed by the details of the contact topology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number042307
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2021


  • Complex networks
  • Epidemic spreading
  • Coinfection
  • Percolation


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