Controlled sonar exposure experiments on cetaceans in norwegian waters: Overview of the 3s-project

Frans Peter A Lam*, Petter H. Kvadsheim, Patrick J O Miller, Peter L. Tyack, Michael A. Ainslie, Charlotte Curé, Lars Kleivane, Lise Doksæter Sivle, Sander P. Van Ijsselmuide, Fleur Visser, Alexander M. Von Benda-Beckmann, Paul Jacobus Wensveen, René P A Dekeling

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)


In mitigating the risk of sonar operations, the behavioral response of cetaceans is one of the major knowledge gaps that needs to be addressed. The 3SProject has conducted a number of controlled exposure experiments with a realistic sonar source in Norwegian waters from 2006 to 2013. In total, the following six target species have been studied: killer, long-finned pilot, sperm, humpback, minke, and northern bottlenose whales. A total of 38 controlled sonar exposures have been conducted on these species. Responses from controlled and repeated exposure runs have been recorded using acoustic and visual observations as well as with electronic tags on the target animal. So far, the first dose-response curves as well as an overview of the scored severity of responses have been revealed. In this paper, an overview is presented of the approach for the study, including the results so far as well as the current status of the ongoing analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)00652598
ISSN (Electronic)22148019


  • Behavioral response
  • Dose response
  • Sonar


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