Construction and visualisation of three-dimensional facial statistics

Bernard Paul Tiddeman, G Rabey, N Duffy

Research output: Other contribution

26 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a new method for the construction of three-dimensional (3D) probabilistic Facial averages and demonstrates the potential for applications in clinical craniofacial research and patient assessment. Averages are constructed from a database of registered laser-range scans and photographic images using feature based image warping. Facial features are extracted using a template of connected contours, adapted to each subject interactively using snakes. Each subject's images are warped to the average template shape acid the mean depth, colour and covariance matrix is found at each point. Statistical comparison of individuals with an average or between two averages is visualised by converting the probabilities to a coloured texture map. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2000


  • facial statistics
  • facial averages
  • morphanalysis
  • three-dimensional medical imaging


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