Conformational analysis explores the role of electrostatic non-classical CFHC hydrogen bonding interactions in selectively halogenated cyclohexanes

Menfang He, Bruno Piscelli, Rodrigo Cormanich *, David O'Hagan*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The conformational equilibria of selectively halogenated cyclohexanes are explored both experimentally (VT-NMR) for 1,1,4,-trifluorocyclohexane 7 and by computational analysis (M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level), with the latter approach extending to a wider range of more highly fluorinated cyclohexanes. Perhaps unexpectedly, 7ax is preferred over the 7eq conformation by ΔG = 1.06 kcal mol–1, contradicting the accepted norm for substituents on cyclohexanes. The axial preference is stronger again in 1,1,3,3,4,5,5,-heptafluorocyclohexane 9 (ΔG = 2.73 kcal mol–1) as the CF2 groups further polarize the isolated CH2 hydrogens. Theoretical decomposition of electrostatic and hyperconjugative effects by natural bond orbital analysis indicated that nonclassical hydrogen bonding (NCHB) between the C-4 fluorine and the diaxial hydrogens at C-2 and C-6 in cyclohexane 7 and 9 largely accounts for the observed bias. The study extended to changing fluorine (F) for chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) at the pseudoanomeric position in the cyclohexanes. Although these halogens do not become involved in NCHBs, they polarize the geminal −CHX– hydrogen at the pseudoanomeric position to a greater extent than fluorine, and consequent electrostatic interactions influence conformer stabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4009–4018
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of Organic Chemistry
Volume89
Issue number6
Early online date5 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Mar 2024

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