Composable constraint models for permutation enumeration

Research output: Working paperPreprint


Constraint programming (CP) is a powerful tool for modeling mathematical concepts and objects and finding both solutions or counter examples. One of the major strengths of CP is that problems can easily be combined or expanded. In this paper, we illustrate that this versatility makes CP an ideal tool for exploring problems in permutation patterns.

We declaratively define permutation properties, permutation pattern avoidance and containment constraints using CP and show how this allows us to solve a wide range of problems. We show how this approach enables the arbitrary composition of these conditions, and also allows the easy addition of extra conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques by modelling the containment and avoidance of six permutation patterns, eight permutation properties and measuring five statistics on the resulting permutations. In addition to calculating properties and statistics for the generated permutations, we show that arbitrary additional constraints can also be easily and efficiently added.

This approach enables mathematicians to investigate permutation pattern problems in a quick and efficient manner. We demonstrate the utility of constraint programming for permutation patterns by showing how we can easily and efficiently extend the known permutation counts for a conjecture involving the class of 1324 avoiding permutations. For this problem, we expand the enumeration of 1324-avoiding permutations with a fixed number of inversions to permutations of length 16 and show for the first time that in the enumeration there is a pattern occurring which follows a unique sequence on the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 29 Nov 2023


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