Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: Evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance

MTG Holden, EJ Feil, JA Lindsay, SJ Peacock, NPJ Day, MC Enright, TJ Foster, CE Moore, L Hurst, R Atkin, A Barron, N Bason, SD Bentley, C Chillingworth, T Chillingworth, C Churcher, L Clark, C Corton, A Cronin, J DoggettL Dowd, T Feltwell, Z Hance, B Harris, H Hauser, S Holroyd, K Jagels, KD James, N Lennard, A Line, R Mayes, S Moule, K Mungall, D Ormond, MA Quail, E Rabbinowitsch, K Rutherford, M Sanders, S Sharp, M Simmonds, K Stevens, S Whitehead, BG Barrell, BG Spratt, J Parkhill*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

756 Citations (Scopus)


Staphylococcus aureus is an important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen. Its genetic plasticity has facilitated the evolution of many virulent and drug-resistant strains, presenting a major and constantly changing clinical challenge. We sequenced the approximate to2.8-Mbp genomes of two disease-causing S. aureus strains isolated from distinct clinical settings: a recent hospital-acquired representative of the epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus EMRSA-16 clone (MRSA252), a clinically important and globally prevalent lineage; and a representative of an invasive community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clone (MSSA476). A comparative-genomics approach was used to explore the mechanisms of evolution of clinically important S. aureus genomes and to identify regions affecting virulence and drug resistance. The genome sequences of MRSA252 and MSSA476 have a well conserved core region but differ markedly in their accessory genetic elements. MRSA252 is the most genetically diverse S. aureus strain sequenced to date: approximate to6% of the genome is novel compared with other published genomes, and it contains several unique genetic elements. MSSA476 is methicillin-susceptible, but it contains a novel Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC) mec-like element (designated SCC476), which is integrated at the same site on the chromosome as SCCmec elements in MRSA strains but encodes a putative fusidic acid resistance protein. The crucial role that accessory elements play in the rapid evolution of S. aureus is clearly illustrated by comparing the MSSA476 genome with that of an extremely closely related MRSA community-acquired strain; the differential distribution of large mobile elements carrying virulence and drug-resistance determinants may be responsible for the clinically important phenotypic differences in these strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9786-9791
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2004


  • MRSA


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