Commuting in small towns in rural areas: The case of St Andrews

A R Hole, F R FitzRoy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Since many rural commuters depend on the private car due to lack of convenient public transport, car reduction policies designed for large cities with ample public transport may be unsuitable for smaller towns. in particular, pricing policies designed to encourage public transport use may be less effective, as commuters with no convenient substitute to driving will be unable to switch. This paper develops multinomial and mixed logit models of commuters' mode choice using data from a survey of commuters in the University of St Andrews. We find that the direct elasticities of the car mode are comparable to estimates reported in studies of commuting in larger urban areas, while the demand for public transport is considerably more elastic. The value of in-vehicle time is found to be about half of the UK average, reflecting that the roads in the St Andrews area are relatively uncongested.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)77-92
    Number of pages16
    JournalInternational Journal of Transport Economics
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005


    • DEMAND
    • POLICY
    • LOGIT


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