Communication and cooperation in living beings and artificial agents

Achim Stephan*, Manuela Lenzen, Josep Call, Matthias Uhl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter compares the communicative and cooperative behaviours of living and artificial beings. Highlighting similarities and differences between these behaviours provides better understanding of the phenomenon of communication and embodiment in communication in general. Living beings with their huge variety of communication behaviours take the lead to draw the most salient distinctions in both communicative and cooperative behaviours. These distinctions are applied to a variety of behaviours instantiated by artificial agents. A huge amount of cooperation, as it turns out, is possible without direct communication, which can be seen in simpler animals as well as in robots.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEmbodied Communication in Humans and Machines
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780191696527
ISBN (Print)9780199231751
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2012


  • Artificial beings
  • Communication
  • Communication behaviours
  • Cooperation
  • Living beings


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