Cardiovascular risk factors among people with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Uganda

Joseph Baruch Baluku*, Martin Nabwana, Joanitah Nalunjogi, Winters Muttamba, Ivan Mubangizi, Lydia Nakiyingi, Willy Ssengooba, Ronald Olum, Felix Bongomin, Irene Andia-Biraro, William Worodria

*Corresponding author for this work

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Tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We determined the prevalence and associations of CVD risk factors among people with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) in Uganda.


In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled people with microbiologically confirmed DRTB at four treatment sites in Uganda between July to December 2021. The studied CVD risk factors were any history of cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM) hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), central obesity and dyslipidaemia. We used modified Poisson regression models with robust standard errors to determine factors independently associated with each of dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and central obesity.


Among 212 participants, 118 (55.7%) had HIV. Overall, 196 (92.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 88.0-95.3) had ≥ 1 CVD risk factor. The prevalence; 95% CI of individual CVD risk factors was: dyslipidaemia (62.5%; 55.4–69.1), hypertension (40.6%; 33.8–47.9), central obesity (39.3%; 32.9–46.1), smoking (36.3%; 30.1–43.1), high BMI (8.0%; 5.0–12.8) and DM (6.5%; 3.7–11.1). Dyslipidaemia was associated with an increase in glycated haemoglobin (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.14, 95%CI 1.06–1.22). Hypertension was associated with rural residence (aPR 1.89, 95% CI 1.14–3.14) and previous history of smoking (aPR 0.46, 95% CI 0.21–0.98). Central obesity was associated with increasing age (aPR 1.02, 95%CI 1.00–1.03), and elevated diastolic blood pressure (aPR 1.03 95%CI 1.00–1.06).


There is a high prevalence of CVD risk factors among people with DRTB in Uganda, of which dyslipidaemia is the commonest. We recommend integrated services for identification and management of CVD risk factors in DRTB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number464
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2022


  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Lipids
  • TB
  • Cardiovascular
  • Cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • MDR TB


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