Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

S. Sushil, A. M. Alabdulrahman, M. Balakrishnan, V. S. Batra, R. A. Blackley, J. Clapp, J. S. J. Hargreaves, A. Monaghan, I. D. Pulford, J. L. Rico, W. Zhou

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55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe3C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-418
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume180
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2010

Keywords

  • Red mud
  • Methane
  • Decomposition
  • Carbon nanostructures
  • IRON-OXIDE CATALYSTS
  • GROWTH-MECHANISM
  • DECOMPOSITION
  • NANOTUBES
  • NANOSTRUCTURES
  • PRECURSORS
  • GOETHITE
  • ATMOSPHERE
  • PARTICLES
  • PYROLYSIS

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