CAR: Context-Aware Adaptive Routing for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Networks

Mirco Musolesi, Cecilia Mascolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

230 Citations (Scopus)


Most of the existing research work in mobile ad hoc networking is based on the assumption that a path exists between the sender and the receiver. On the other hand, applications of decentralized mobile systems are often characterized by network partitions. As a consequence, delay-tolerant networking research has received considerable attention in the recent years as a means to obviate to the gap between ad hoc network research and real applications. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Context-aware Adaptive Routing ( CAR) protocol for delay-tolerant unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is based on the idea of exploiting nodes as carriers of messages among network partitions to achieve delivery. The choice of the best carrier is made using Kalman-filter-based prediction techniques and utility theory. The large-scale performance of the CAR protocol are evaluated using simulations based on a social-network-founded mobility model, a purely random one, and real traces from Dartmouth College.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-260
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2009


  • Wireless communication
  • routing protocols


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