Boson sampling with 20 input photons in 60-mode interferometer at 1014-dimensional Hilbert space

Hui Wang, Jian Qin, Xing Ding, Ming-Cheng Chen, Si Chen, Xiang You, Yu-Ming He, Xiao Jiang, L. You, Z. Wang, C. Schneider, J. J. Renema, Sven Hoefling, Chao-Yang Lu, Jian-Wei Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Citations (Scopus)


Quantum computing experiments are moving into a new realm of increasing size and complexity, with the short-term goal of demonstrating an advantage over classical computers. Boson sampling is a promising platform for such a goal; however, the number of detected single photons is up to five so far, limiting these small-scale implementations to a proof-of-principle stage. Here, we develop solid-state sources of highly efficient, pure, and indistinguishable single photons and 3D integration of ultralow-loss optical circuits. We perform experiments with 20 pure single photons fed into a 60-mode interferometer. In the output, we detect up to 14 photons and sample over Hilbert spaces with a size up to 3.7×1014, over 10 orders of magnitude larger than all previous experiments, which for the first time enters into a genuine sampling regime where it becomes impossible to exhaust all possible output combinations. The results are validated against distinguishable samplers and uniform samplers with a confidence level of 99.9%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number250503
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number15
Early online date18 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2019


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