Bombs and flares at the surface and lower atmosphere of the Sun

V. H. Hansteen, V. Archontis, T. M. D. Pereira, M. Carlsson, L. Rouppe van der Voort, J. Leenaarts

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57 Citations (Scopus)


A spectacular manifestation of solar activity is the appearance of transient brightenings in the far wings of the Hα line, known as Ellerman bombs (EBs). Recent observations obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph have revealed another type of plasma "bombs" (UV bursts) with high temperatures of perhaps up to 8 × 104 K within the cooler lower solar atmosphere. Realistic numerical modeling showing such events is needed to explain their nature. Here, we report on 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetic flux emergence in the solar atmosphere. We find that ubiquitous reconnection between emerging bipolar magnetic fields can trigger EBs in the photosphere, UV bursts in the mid/low chromosphere and small (nano-/micro-) flares (106 K) in the upper chromosphere. These results provide new insights into the emergence and build up of the coronal magnetic field and the dynamics and heating of the solar surface and lower atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
Number of pages12
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2017


  • Sun: activity
  • Sun: atmosphere
  • Sun: chromosphere
  • Sun: magnetic fields
  • Sun: photosphere
  • Sun: UV radiation


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