Baseline fusion for image an pattern recognition - what not to do (and how to do better)

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The ever-increasing demand for a reliable inference capable of handling unpredictable challenges of practical application in the real world has made research on information fusion of major importance; indeed, this challenge is pervasive in a whole range of image understanding tasks. In the development of the most common type—score-level fusion algorithms—it is virtually universally desirable to have as a reference starting point a simple and universally sound baseline benchmark which newly developed approaches can be compared to. One of the most pervasively used methods is that of weighted linear fusion. It has cemented itself as the default off-the-shelf baseline owing to its simplicity of implementation, interpretability, and surprisingly competitive performance across a widest range of application domains and information source types. In this paper I argue that despite this track record, weighted linear fusion is not a good baseline on the grounds that there is an equally simple and interpretable alternative—namely quadratic mean-based fusion—which is theoretically more principled and which is more successful in practice. I argue the former from first principles and demonstrate the latter using a series of experiments on a diverse set of fusion problems: classification using synthetically generated data, computer vision-based object recognition, arrhythmia detection, and fatality prediction in motor vehicle accidents. On all of the aforementioned problems and in all instances, the proposed fusion approach exhibits superior performance over linear fusion, often increasing class separation by several orders of magnitude.
Original languageEnglish
Article number44
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Imaging
Issue number4
Early online date11 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Prediction
  • Arrhythmia
  • Image matching
  • Object recognition


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