Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state

M. H. Hamidian, Stephen David Edkins, Chung Koo Kim*, James C Davis, Andrew Mackenzie, H. Eisaki, S. Uchida, M. J. Lawler, E.-A. Kim, S. Sachdev, K. Fujita

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


Research on high-temperature superconducting cuprates is at present focused on identifying the relationship between the classic ‘pseudogap’ phenomenon1,2 and the more recently investigated density wave state3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. This state is generally characterized by a wavevector Q parallel to the planar Cu–O–Cu bonds4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 along with a predominantly d-symmetry form factor14,15,16 (dFF-DW). To identify the microscopic mechanism giving rise to this state17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29, one must identify the momentum-space states contributing to the dFF-DW spectral weight, determine their particle–hole phase relationship about the Fermi energy, establish whether they exhibit a characteristic energy gap, and understand the evolution of all these phenomena throughout the phase diagram. Here we use energy-resolved sublattice visualization14 of electronic structure and reveal that the characteristic energy of the dFF-DW modulations is actually the ‘pseudogap’ energy Δ1. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dFF-DW modulations at E  =   −Δ1 (filled states) occur with relative phase π compared to those at E  =  Δ1 (empty states). Finally, we show that the conventionally defined dFF-DW Q corresponds to scattering between the ‘hot frontier’ regions of momentum-space beyond which Bogoliubov quasiparticles cease to exist30,31,32. These data indicate that the cuprate dFF-DW state involves particle–hole interactions focused at the pseudogap energy scale and between the four pairs of ‘hot frontier’ regions in momentum space where the pseudogap opens.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-156
JournalNature Physics
Issue number2
Early online date26 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016


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