Assessment of immunological features in muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis using ensemble learning

Christos Gavriel*, Neofytos Dimitriou, Nicolas Brieu, Ines P. Nearchou, Oggie Arandelovic, Günter Schmidt, David J. Harrison, Peter D. Caie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


The clinical staging and prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) routinely includes the assessment of patient tissue samples by a pathologist. Recent studies corroborate the importance of image analysis in identifying and quantifying immunological markers from tissue samples that can provide further insight into patient prognosis. In this paper, we apply multiplex immunofluorescence to MIBC tissue sections to capture whole-slide images and quantify potential prognostic markers related to lymphocytes, macrophages, tumour buds, and PD-L1. We propose a machine-learning-based approach for the prediction of 5 year prognosis with different combinations of image, clinical, and spatial features. An ensemble model comprising several functionally different models successfully stratifies MIBC patients into two risk groups with high statistical significance (p value < 1×10−5). Critical to improving MIBC survival rates, our method correctly classifies 71.4% of the patients who succumb to MIBC, which is significantly more than the 28.6% of the current clinical gold standard, the TNM staging system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1624
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021


  • Immuno-oncology
  • Tumour microenvironment
  • Tumour budding
  • PD-L1
  • Macrophages
  • Lymphocytes
  • Prognosis
  • survival analysis
  • Machine learning
  • Digital pathology


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of immunological features in muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis using ensemble learning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this