Assessing the societal benefits of river restoration using the ecosystem services approach

Jan E. Vermaat*, Alfred J. Wagtendonk, Roy Brouwer, Oleg Sheremet, Erik Ansink, Tim Brockhoff, Maarten Plug, Seppo Hellsten, Jukka Aroviita, Luiza Tylec, Marek Giełczewski, Lukas Kohut, Karel Brabec, Jantine Haverkamp, Michaela Poppe, Kerstin Böck, Matthijs Coerssen, Joel Segersten, Daniel Hering

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    73 Citations (Scopus)


    The success of river restoration was estimated using the ecosystem services approach. In eight pairs of restored–unrestored reaches and floodplains across Europe, we quantified provisioning (agricultural products, wood, reed for thatching, infiltrated drinking water), regulating (flooding and drainage, nutrient retention, carbon sequestration) and cultural (recreational hunting and fishing, kayaking, biodiversity conservation, appreciation of scenic landscapes) services for separate habitats within each reach, and summed these to annual economic value normalized per reach area. We used locally available data and literature, did surveys among inhabitants and visitors, and used a range of economic methods (market value, shadow price, replacement cost, avoided damage, willingness-to-pay survey, choice experiment) to provide final monetary service estimates. Total ecosystem service value was significantly increased in the restored reaches (difference 1400 ± 600 € ha−1 year−1; 2500 − 1100, p = 0.03, paired t test). Removal of one extreme case did not affect this outcome. We analysed the relation between services delivered and with floodplain and catchment characteristics after reducing these 23 variables to four principal components explaining 80% of the variance. Cultural and regulating services correlated positively with human population density, cattle density and agricultural N surplus in the catchment, but not with the fraction of arable land or forest, floodplain slope, mean river discharge or GDP. Our interpretation is that landscape appreciation and flood risk alleviation are a function of human population density, but not wealth, in areas where dairy farming is the prime form of agriculture.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)121-135
    Number of pages15
    Issue number1
    Early online date17 Sept 2015
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016


    • Biodiversity
    • Economic valuation
    • Flood control
    • Nutrient retention
    • River corridor
    • Wetlands


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