Antibiotic resistance, virulence determinants and production of biogenic amines among enterococci from ovine, feline, canine, porcine and human milk

Esther Jimenez, Victor Ladero, Irene Chico, Antonio Maldonado-Barragan, Maria Lopez, Virginia Martin, Leonides Fernandez, Maria Fernandez, Miguel A. Alvarez, Carmen Torres, Juan M. Rodriguez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have shown that mammalian milk represents a continuous supply of commensal bacteria, including enterococci. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of enterococci in milk of different species and to screen them for several genetic and phenotypic traits of clinical significance among enterococci.

Results: Samples were obtained from, at least, nine porcine, canine, ovine, feline and human healthy hosts. Enterococci could be isolated, at a concentration of 1.00 x 10(2) -1.16 x 10(3) CFU/ml, from all the porcine samples and, also from 85, 50, 25 and 25% of the human, canine, feline and ovine ones, respectively. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus durans. Among the 120 initial enterococcal isolates, 36 were selected on the basis of their different PFGE profiles and further characterized. MLST analysis revealed a wide diversity of STs among the E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, including some frequently associated to hospital infections and novel STs. All the E. faecalis strains possessed some of the potential virulence determinants (cad, ccf, cob, cpd, efaA(fs), agg2, gelE, cylA, esp(fs)) assayed while the E. faecium ones only harboured the efaA(fm) gene. All the tested strains were susceptible to tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin, and produced tyramine. Their susceptibility to the rest of the antimicrobials and their ability to produce other biogenic amines varied depending on the strain. Enterococci strains isolated from porcine samples showed the widest spectrum of antibiotic resistance.

Conclusions: Enterococci isolated from milk of different mammals showed a great genetic diversity. The wide distribution of virulence genes and/or antibiotic resistance among the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates indicates that they can constitute a reservoir of such traits and a risk to animal and human health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number288
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2013

Keywords

  • Enterococcus
  • Milk
  • Mammals
  • Virulence
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Biogenic amines
  • LACTIC-ACID BACTERIA
  • SEQUENCE TYPING SCHEME
  • HUMAN HEALTH
  • GLYCOPEPTIDE RESISTANCE
  • SPECIES-LEVEL
  • BREAST-MILK
  • EWES MILK
  • FAECIUM
  • ANIMALS
  • IDENTIFICATION

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