Another avant-garde: rethinking Tondar Kia's approach to poetic expression in a transnational context

Farshad Sonboldel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article explores the concept of avant-garde artistic expression and argues that it should be regarded as a transcultural phenomenon that surpasses geographical boundaries. It emphasizes the importance of adopting a transnational perspective to fully grasp the intricate interactions between diverse avant-garde movements across cultures and regions. To illustrate this point, the article focuses on the Iranian avant-garde poet Tondar Kia, challenging the perception that his work is merely a replication of Western movements. Instead, it proposes that a transnational lens enables a more comprehensive understanding of the distinctive contributions made by Iranian avant-garde poets to the global avant-garde movement. The article extensively examines Kia’s work within the local context of Persian literary evolution while also shedding light on the transnational aspects present in his compositions. It highlights Kia’s critique of established aesthetic norms, particularly the notion of organic unity, and explores his innovative approaches to rhythm, tone, and polyphony in Persian poetry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-85
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Persian Literature
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023


  • Avant-garde movements
  • Global South modernisms
  • Persian avant-garde
  • Transnational perspective
  • Tondar Kia
  • Aesthetic innovation


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