Accurate efficiency measurements of organic light-emitting diodes via angle-resolved spectroscopy

Emily Archer, Sabina Hillebrandt, Changmin Keum, Caroline Murawski, Jan Murawski, Francisco Tenopala-Carmona, Malte C. Gather*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


The accurate characterization of thin-film LEDs – including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), perovskites and quantum dot LEDs – is crucial to our understanding of the factors that influence their efficiency and thus to the fabrication of LEDs with improved performance and stability. In addition, detailed information about the angular characteristics of LED emission is useful to assess the suitability of individual architectures, e.g. for display applications. Here, the implementation of a goniometer-based measurement system and corresponding protocol are described that allow to accurately determine the current-voltage-luminance characteristics, external quantum efficiency and luminous efficacy of OLEDs and other emerging thin-film LEDs. The system allows recording of angle-resolved electroluminescence spectra and accurate efficiency measurements for devices with both Lambertian and non-Lambertian emission characteristics. A detailed description of the setup and a protocol for assembling and aligning the required hardware are provided. Drawings of all custom parts and the open-source Python software required to perform the measurement and to analyze the data are included.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2000838
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number1
Early online date8 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2021


  • Angle-resolved electroluminescence
  • External quantum efficiency
  • Goniometer
  • Non-Lambertian emission
  • OLEDs
  • Thin-film LEDs


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