A water maser and NH3 survey of glimpse extended green objects

Claudia Jane Cyganowski, J. Koda, E. Rosolowsky, S. Towers, J. Donovan Meyer, F. Egusa, R. Momose, Thomas Pierre Robitaille

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29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the results of a Nobeyama 45 m H2O maser and NH3 survey of all 94 northern GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), a sample of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) identified based on their extended 4.5 um emission. We observed the NH3(1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) inversion lines, and detected emission toward 97%, 63%, and 46% of our sample, respectively (median rms ~50 mK). The H2O maser detection rate is 68% (median rms ~0.11 Jy). The derived H2O maser and clump-scale gas properties are consistent with the identification of EGOs as young MYSOs. To explore the degree of variation among EGOs, we analyze subsamples defined based on mid-infrared (MIR) properties or maser associations. H2O masers and warm dense gas, as indicated by emission in the higher-excitation NH3 transitions, are most frequently detected toward EGOs also associated with both Class I and II CH3OH masers. Ninety-five percent (81%) of such EGOs are detected in H2O (NH3(3,3)), compared to only 33% (7%) of EGOs without either CH3OH maser type. As populations, EGOs associated with Class I and/or II CH3OH masers have significantly higher NH3 line widths, column densities, and kinetic temperatures than EGOs undetected in CH3OH maser surveys. However, we find no evidence for statistically significant differences in H2O maser properties (such as maser luminosity) among any EGO subsamples. Combining our data with the 1.1 mm continuum Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, we find no correlation between isotropic H2O maser luminosity and clump number density. H2O maser luminosity is weakly correlated with clump (gas) temperature and clump mass.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
Number of pages30
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume764
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2013

Keywords

  • infrared: ISM
  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • ISM: molecules
  • masers
  • stars: formation
  • STAR-FORMING REGIONS
  • INFRARED DARK CLOUDS
  • GHZ METHANOL MASERS
  • ULTRACOMPACT HII-REGIONS
  • SPITZER-SPACE-TELESCOPE
  • YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS
  • CLASS-I
  • TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES
  • MOLECULAR CLOUD
  • ARRAY CAMERA

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