A three-stage model for implementing focused written corrective feedback

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article aims to show how the findings from written corrective feedback (WCF) research can be applied in practice. One particular kind of WCF—focused WCF— is brought into the spotlight. The article first summarizes major findings from focused WCF research to reveal the potential advantages of correcting a few preselected language items instead of all errors. It is argued that the majority of the focused WCF research, which has adopted an experimental or quasi-experimental design, has had limited pedagogical implications for second language (L2) writing teachers. Thus, the second section puts forward a three-stage model for operationalizing focused WCF, which includes selecting the focus, teaching the focus, and reinforcing the focus. Pedagogical ideas will be included in each of the stages to give writing teachers a clear idea of how to justify the selection of a language focus and implement WCF in a systematic manner.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-82
Number of pages12
JournalTESL Canada Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2017


  • Written corrective feedback
  • Direct feedback
  • Focused feedback
  • Error correction


Dive into the research topics of 'A three-stage model for implementing focused written corrective feedback'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this