A stoichiometric nano-LiMn2O4 spinel electrode exhibiting high power and stable cycling

Kuthanapillil M. Shaju, Peter G. Bruce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

197 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Stoichiometric LiMn2O4 has been synthesized using a one-pot resorcinol -formaldehyde route. The resulting material is composed of nanoparticles fused together, thus forming a porous morphology. The material when used as a cathode in a lithium battery exhibits, at 30 degrees C, an initial capacity of 131 mA center dot h g(-1) retaining a capacity of 118 mA center dot h g(-1) after 200 cycles (99.95% capacity retention per cycle) and at 50 degrees C an initial capacity of 132 mA center dot h g(-1) retaining 110 mA center dot h g(-1) after 200 cycles (99.92% capacity retention per cycle) all at a rate of C/2 (where 1C = 148 mA g(-1)), with no evidence of structural degradation. Rate capability is demonstrated by retention of 90% of the capacity at a rate of 40C compared with the capacity at C/5 rate. Cycling at a rate of 10C is associated with nearly 100% power retention after 1000 cycles (initial value of 5840 W kg(-1) (of LiMn2O4) dropping to 5828 W kg(-1) after 1000 cycles). Differences in the capacity retention on cycling between the material reported here and conventionally synthesized bulk LiMn2O4 Or nanoparticle LiMn2O4 synthesized by a different sot-gel route also yielding interconnected nanoparticles are reflected in superior structural stability, lower Mn dissolution, and relatively invariant ac impedance of our nano-LiMn2O4. Such results suggest that the material prepared using the resorcinol-formaldehyde route may possess a stabilized surface that inhibits dissolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5557-5562
Number of pages6
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Sept 2008

Keywords

  • LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES
  • MANGANESE OXIDE SPINEL
  • HIGH-RATE CAPABILITY
  • CATHODE MATERIALS
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES
  • ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE
  • STRUCTURAL-CHANGES
  • LIMN2O4
  • CELLS

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