A review of the effects of seismic surveys on marine mammals

Jonathan Charles David Gordon, D Gillespie, J Potter, A Frantzis, M P Simmonds, R Swift, D Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

150 Citations (Scopus)


This review highlights significant gaps in our knowledge of the effects of seismic air-gun noise on marine mammals. although the characteristics of the seismic signal at different ranges and depths and at higher frequencies are poorly understood, and there are often insufficient data to identify the appropriate acoustic propagation models to apply in particular conditions, these uncertainties are modest compared with those associated with biological factors. Potential biological effects of air gun noise include physical/physiological effects, behavioral disruption, and indirect effects associated with altered prey availability physical/physiological effects could include hearing threshold shifts and auditory damage as well as non-auditory disruption, and can be directly caused by sound exposure or the result of behavioral changes in response to sounds, e.g. recent observations suggesting that exposure to loud noise may result in decompression sickness. Direct information on the extent to which seismic pulses could damage hearing are difficult to obtain and as a consequence the impacts on hearing remain poorly known. Behavioral data have been collected for a few species in a limited range of conditions. responses, including startle and fright, avoidance, and changes in behaviour and vocalization patterns, have been observed in baleen whales, odontocetes, and pinnipeds and in some case these have occurred at ranges of tens or hundreds of kilometers. however, behavioral observations are typically variable, some findings are contradictory, and the biological significance of these effects has not been measured. Where feeding, orientation, hazard avoidance, migration or social behaviour are altered, it is possible that populations could be adversely affected. There may also be serious long-term consequences due to chronic exposure, and sound could affect marine mammals indirectly by changing the accessibility of their prey species.

A precautionary approach to management and regulation must be recommended. While such large degrees of uncertainty remain, this may results in restrictions to operational practices but these could be relaxed if key uncertainties are clarified by appropriate research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-34
Number of pages19
JournalMarine Technology Society Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2003


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