A review of language MOOCs and development of a design framework

Sin Wang Chong, Hayo Reinders, Muhammad Aamir Khan, Catherine Yanyan Lin

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Traditionally, non-formal and informal language learning operates in the service of formal language education, usually through the use of technology. However, the outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a paradigm shift in language learning; with campuses closed and social distancing regulations in place, language teaching and learning has to take place online. During these challenging times, language learners rely on non-formal and informal language learning resources to improve their language proficiency, for example, by attending Language Massive Open Online Courses (Language MOOCs).

Recently, there has been a growing number of Language MOOCs being developed around the world. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research on learners’ perceptions of Language MOOCs and their efficacy, and an absence of a research-informed design framework to guide the development of such MOOCs. The shift in language learning and teaching online and the increasing reliance on online self-study language learning resources during the pandemic has provided the impetus for analysing features of existing Language MOOCs. Employing the model of web-based design for learning by Hall, Watkins, and Eller (2013), features of 100 Language MOOCs on two most popular MOOC platforms, edX and Coursera, are analysed with reference to seven components: directionality, usability, consistency, interactivity, multimodality, adaptability, and accountability. Preliminary findings of this analysis will be presented and a framework which aims to guide the development of Language MOOCs will be proposed. An example of Language MOOC in progress which utilises the design framework will be shared.


ConferenceHarnessing the Potentials of Technology to Support Self-Directed Language Learning in Online Learning Settings
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